Review article

BioMedicine

, 4:2

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Evolving Personalized Therapy for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

  • Hsin-Ho LiuAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taichung Tzu Chi General HospitalDepartment of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University
  • , Yuh-Shyan TsaiAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDepartment of Urology, Medical College and Hospital, National Cheng Kung University
  • , Chen-Li LaiAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDepartment of Urology, Medical College and Hospital, National Cheng Kung University
  • , Chih-Hsin TangAffiliated withSchool of Medicine, China Medical University
  • , Chih-Ho LaiAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterSchool of Medicine, China Medical University
  • , Hsi-Chin WuAffiliated withSchool of Medicine, China Medical UniversityDepartment of Urology, China Medical University Hospital Email author 
  • , Jer-Tsong HsiehAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterGraduate Institute of Cancer Biology, China Medical University Email author 
  • , Che-Rei YangAffiliated withSchool of Medicine, China Medical UniversityDepartment of Urology, China Medical University Hospital Email author 

Abstract

With advances in molecular biologic and genomic technology, detailed molecular mechanisms for development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have surfaced. Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) no longer represents an end stage, with many emerging therapeutic agents approved as effective in prolonging survival of patients from either pre- or post-docetaxel stage. Given tumor heterogeneity in patients, a one-size-fits-all theory for curative therapy remains questionable. With the support of evidence from continuing clinical trials, each treatment modality has gradually been found suitable for selective best-fit patients: e.g., new androgen synthesis inhibitor arbiraterone, androgen receptor signaling inhibitor enzalutamide, sipuleucel-T immunotherapy, new taxane carbazitaxel, calcium-mimetic radium-223 radiopharmaceutical agent. Moreover, several emerging immunomodulating agents and circulating tumor cell enumeration and analysis showed promise in animal or early phase clinical trials. While the era of personalized therapy for CRPC patients is still in infancy, optimal therapeutic agents and their sequencing loom not far in the future.

Keywords

Prostate cancer Personalized cancer therapy Castration-resistant prostate cancer