Original Article

ASEAN Heart Journal

, 24:5

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Impact of Community-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation on Clinical Parameters of Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Kheng Yong OngAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacy, Singapore General Hospital
  • , Elise YapAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore
  • , Yvonne May Fen ChiaAffiliated withDuke-NUS Medical School
  • , Hung Yong TayAffiliated withHeart Wellness Centre, Singapore Heart Foundation
  • , Peter TingAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiology, National Heart Centre Singapore
  • , Sui Yung ChanAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore
  • , Yu Heng KwanAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of SingaporeDuke-NUS Medical SchoolHeart Wellness Centre, Singapore Heart Foundation



Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes have been shown to improve patient outcomes, but vary widely in their components. The impact of Singapore’s CR programme on clinical outcomes is currently not known.


To evaluate the effects of a community-based CR programme on important clinical parameters in patients with cardiovascular disease in Singapore.


A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Cardiovascular patients who had completed a hospital-based CR programme were included. Patients who continued with community-based CR (n = 94) during the period of 2009-2013 were compared with patients who received regular care (n = 157). Changes in clinical and physical examination parameters between baseline and one-year post follow-up were analyzed. Within-group differences were compared using the paired t-test, while multivariate linear regression was used to compare the changes in the various parameters between the intervention and control groups. The primary outcome measure was low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels.


Patients in the intervention group had significant lowering of LDL (2.5 to 2.2 mmol/L, p<0.01), while the control group’s LDL increased (2.2 to 2.4 mmol/L, p<0.01). The intervention group had greater improvements in LDL (-0.3 vs. +0.2 mmol/L, p<0.01), triglycerides (-0.1 vs. +0.1 mmol/L, p=0.01), total cholesterol (-0.3 vs. +0.3 mmol/L, p<0.01), fasting blood glucose (-0.5 vs. +0.3 mmol/L, p<0.01), systolic blood pressure (-3.2 vs. +5 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-2.6 vs. +2.8 mmHg, p<0.01).


The community-based CR programme in Singapore is associated with improvements in several cardiovascular clinical parameters and may be of benefit to cardiovascular patients.


Community Cardiovascular Disease Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinical Outcomes Low density lipoprotein