Journal of Engineering Research

, 3:19

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Bioremediation for hazardous liquid industrial waste at evaporation pit, Wafra south of Kuwait.

  • Sharifah M. Al- SowaidanAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Affairs, Kuwait Municipality Email author 
  • , Mohammed A. Al- SarawiAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental and Earth Science, College of Science, Kuwait University


Bioremediation of oily sludge contamination was conducted at the Wafra/Mina Abdullah site (Kilo 14) in southern Kuwait. The waste contents originally showed high levels of trace metals and other toxic chemicals. High levels of organic parameters were indicated by analyses of chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Methods used in bioremediation included in-situ and ex-situ approaches such as: landfarming, bioventing, bioaugmentation, biosparging, and composting (biopiling). After one year of landfarming treatment, eight heavy metals showed overall reduction of 81%. Of the organic compounds monitored, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total organic carbon showed one-year reductions of 71.1%, 89.47%, 94.17%, and 95.36%, respectively. In summary, bioremediation was shown to be very cost effective method in this research, it is highly recommended to be implemented in heavy oily sludge area.


Bioremediation chemicals heavy metals landfarming oily sludge