Original article

BioMedicine

, 5:3

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Sambucus williamsii induced embryonic stem cells differentiated into neurons

  • Shih-Ping LiuAffiliated withCenter for Neuropsychiatry, China Medical University HospitalGraduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical UniversityDepartment of Social Work, Asia University Email author 
  • , Chien-Yu HsuAffiliated withGraduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University
  • , Ru-Huei FuAffiliated withCenter for Neuropsychiatry, China Medical University HospitalGraduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University
  • , Yu-Chuen HuangAffiliated withGenetics Center, Department of Medical Research, China Medical University HospitalGraduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University
  • , Shih-Yin ChenAffiliated withGenetics Center, Department of Medical Research, China Medical University HospitalGraduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University
  • , Shinn-Zong LinAffiliated withCenter for Neuropsychiatry, China Medical University HospitalGraduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical UniversityDepartment of Neurosurgery, China Medical University Beigan HospitalDepartment of Neurosurgery, Tainan Municipal An-Nan Hospital-China Medical University
  • , Woei-Cherng ShyuAffiliated withCenter for Neuropsychiatry, China Medical University HospitalGraduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University

Abstract

The pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into any cell type, thus making them the focus of many clinical application studies. However, the efficiency of ESCs differentiated into neurons needs to improve. In this study, we tried to increase efficiently to a neural fate in the presence of various transitional Chinese medicines through a three-step differentiation strategy. From extracts of 10 transitional Chinese medicine candidates, we determined that Sambucus williamsii (SW) extract triggers the up-regulation of Nestin and Tuj1 (neuron cells markers) gene expression levels. After determining the different concentrations of SW extract, the number of neurons in the 200 μg/ml SW extract group was higher than the control, 50, 100, and 400 μg/ml SW extract groups. In addition, the number of neurons in the 200 μg/ml SW extract group was higher and higher after each time passage (three times). We also detected the Oct4, Sox2 (stem cells markers), Tuj1, and Nestin genes expression levels by RT-PCR. In the differentiated process, Oct4 and Sox2 genes decreased while the Tuj1 and Nestin genes expression levels increased. In summary, we demonstrated that SW could induce pluripotent stem cells differentiated into neurons. Thus, SW might become a powerful material for neurons–differentiating strategies.

Keywords:

Sambucus williamsii; Differentiation; neurons; Embryonic stem