Original article


, 6:17

First online:

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EPA or DHA enhanced oxidative stress and aging protein expression in brain of d-galactose treated mice

  • Yuan-Man HsuAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University
  • , Mei-Chin YinAffiliated withDepartment of Nutrition, China Medical University Email author 



Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) upon fatty acid composition, oxidative and inflammatory factors and aging proteins in brain of d-galactose (DG) treated aging mice were examined.


Each fatty acid at 7 mg/kg BW/week was supplied for 8 weeks. Brain aging was induced by DG treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) via daily subcutaneous injection for 8 weeks.


DG, EPA and DHA treatments changed brain fatty acid composition. DG down-regulated brain Bcl-2 expression and up-regulated Bax expression. Compared with DG groups, EPA and DHA further enhanced Bax expression. DG decreased glutathione content, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production, the intake of EPA or DHA caused greater ROS and GSSG formation. DG treatments up-regulated the protein expression of p47phox and gp91phox, and the intake of EPA or DHA led to greater p47phox and gp91phox expression. DG increased brain prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and activity, the intake of EPA or DHA reduced brain COX-2 activity and PGE2 formation. DG enhanced brain p53, p16 and p21 expression. EPA and DHA intake led to greater p21 expression, and EPA only caused greater p53 and p16 expression. Conclusion: These findings suggest that these two PUFAs have toxic effects toward aging brain.


Brain aging DHA EPA NADPH oxidase d-Galactose