GSTF Journal of Engineering Technology (JET)

, 3:8

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

A Viability Study of a Lithium Battery Powered Golf Cart

  • Andrew LarsonAffiliated withNorth Dakota State College of ScienceCollege of Technology
  • , Eric DietzAffiliated withRose-Hulman Institute of TechnologyPurdue University


There is a recent trend among low speed electric vehicle manufacturers to update traction batteries from older, heavy chemistries to new, lighter battery chemistries. In this viability study, a Club Car Villager LSV electric golf cart was converted from the original flooded lead acid batteries to hard carbon/mixed oxide lithium batteries. The range and speed of both chemistries are compared. This paper demonstrates a potential operational savings for ight electric vehicle users. Despite a reduction in volume, the lithium batteries outperformed the lead acid in both range (46.7% increase) and charging time (95% reduction). The range increase was due, in part, to a reduction in battery weight of 62.5%. In addition to range test results, implementation of the lithium battery management system and J1772 charger system used to support this conversion are discussed.


electric golf cart low speed vehicle lithium battery J1772 battery management system