Original research

Biomedical Research and Therapy

, 2:12

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Bacterial Meningitis: a five-year retrospective study among patients who had attended at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

  • Birehanemeskel TegeneAffiliated withSchool of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gondar Email author 
  • , Solomon GebreselassieAffiliated withDepartment of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University
  • , Nigus FikrieAffiliated withDepartment of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University

Abstract

Background:

Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM) is an important cause of death and long-term neurological disability. Recent Information on the relative frequency of the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of these pathogens is scarce in Ethiopia.

Objective:

This study was to document the microbial characteristics, the antibacterial sensitivity pattern, and seasonal variation of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis.

Material and methods:

The study was retrospective, conducted at university of Gondar referral hospital, serving the rural population of the northwest parts of Ethiopia. A total of three thousand and eighty five cerebrospinal fluid specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory for culture and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a period between January 2006 and December 2010. Analysis of extracted data was performed using SPSS statistical software (Version 17).

Results:

The etiological agent had been identified in 120 (3.8%) of the total 3,085 CSF samples by culture. Thirty- nine (32.5%) of them were infants below the age of 12 months. S. pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 52 (43.3%) of the cases. Whereas N. meningitidis and H. influenzae accounted for 27(22.5%), and 12(10%), respectively. Other gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus were isolated from 21(17.2%), and 11(9.2%) cases, respectively. Among gram positive organisms S.pneumoniae showed a high level of drug resistance against cotrimoxazole 44(84.3%). Among gram-negative bacteria, N.meningitidis was found to be resistant to co-trimoxazole in 25(92.5%). E. coli and salmonella spp. were found to be resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was observed in 58.3% of the isolates.

Conclusions and recommendation:

S. pneumoniae remains the major etiological agent of Community Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis (CAABM) both in adults and children in the study area. 5.7% of S. pneumoniae were resistances to penicillin. Further research should focus on preventable aspects CAABM of, especially pneumococcal vaccines, to reduce the disease burden.

Keywords

Bacterial meningitis antimicrobial susceptibility pyogenic meningitis