Original Research

Biomedical Research and Therapy

, 3:13

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Effects of adding tocotrienol-tocopherol mixed fraction and vitamin C on inflammatory status in hypercholesterolaemic patients in the low coronary risk category

  • Muhamed T OsmanAffiliated withDepartment of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, Universiti Pertahanan National Malaysia (UPNM)
  • , Thuhairah RahmanAffiliated withInstitute of Pathology, Forensic and Laboratory Medicine (I-PPerForM), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg. Buloh Campus
  • , Suhaila MuidAffiliated withCentre for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg. Buloh CampusFaculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • , Haron HaronAffiliated withCentre for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg. Buloh CampusFaculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • , Tanku IsmailAffiliated withCentre for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg. Buloh CampusFaculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • , Anis RamliAffiliated withCentre for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg. Buloh CampusFaculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • , Azlina AbdulrahmanAffiliated withCentre for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg. Buloh CampusFaculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • , Hapizah NawawiAffiliated withInstitute of Pathology, Forensic and Laboratory Medicine (I-PPerForM), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sg. Buloh Campus Email author 

Abstract

Aim

This study is designed to investigate the effects of tocotrienol-tocopherol mixed fraction (TTMF), vitamin C and combined TTMF-vitamin C supplementations on serum lipids and biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in hypercholesterolemic subjects in the low-risk category.

Materials and Methods

78 hypercholesterolaemic subjects (total cholesterol of ≥ 5.2 mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein 3.4 – 4.9 mmol/L) in the low cardiovascular risk category according to the NCEP-ATP3 criteria were recruited. They were randomized into four treatment combination groups for a period of twelve months; (1) receiving TTMF and vitamin C, (2) receiving TTMF and placebo, (3) receiving vitamin C and placebo, and (4) receiving placebo for both. Serum fasting lipid profiles and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-ɑ, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, E-selectin and homocysteine were measured at entry and multiple time points post-randomisation.

Results

There were no significant differences in percentage changes of lipid profiles and inflammatory markers between treated and placebo groups for either single or combined antioxidants supplementations.

Conclusion

TTMF, vitamin C and combined TTMF-vitamin C supplementations have neutral effects on lipid profiles and biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in low risk subjects, suggesting that they offer no added advantage in the low cardiovascular risk group.

Keywords:

Antioxidants tocotrienols hypercholesterolaemia inflammation atherosclerosis low coronary risk