Original research

Biomedical Research and Therapy

, 3:41

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Incidence and mortality of liver cancer and their relationship with the human development index in the world

  • Masoumeh ArabsalmaniAffiliated withHealth promotion research center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, school of public Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences
  • , Maryam MirzaeiAffiliated withSchool of Public Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
  • , Mahshid GhonchehAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences
  • , Ali SoroushAffiliated withImam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
  • , Farhad TowhidiAffiliated withImam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
  • , Hamid SalehiniyaAffiliated withZabol University of Medical SciencesDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Email author 



Information on the incidence and mortality of liver cancer can be useful for health programs and research activities, and with regard to the possible role of the HDI and liver cancer, this study aimed to investigate incidence and mortality from the cancer and their relationship with the indicator and its components in 2012 in world.


In this ecologic study, data were extracted from GLOBOCAN in 2012. Data on HDI and its components were extracted from the World Bank. The number and standardized incidence and mortality rates of liver cancer were reported by regions in the world. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and Correlation coefficient test.


There was a total of 782,451 incidence cases. Of these patients, 228, 082 cases (29.15 %) were women and 554, 369 cases (70.85 %) men, and there were 745,533 deaths. Of the deaths, 224, 492 cases (30.11 %) occurred in women and 521, 041 cases (69.89 %) men were recorded in the world in 2012. Results showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and HDI (r=-0.345, p≤0.001), as well significant inverse correlation was seen between age-specific mortality rate (ASMR), and HDI and its components.


Liver cancer incidence and mortality are higher in the medium HDI countries. The relationship between the standardized incidence and mortality of liver cancer with HDI and its components, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and income level per person was significantly negative.


Incidence Mortality Liver Cancer Human Development Index World